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Nipah virus was discovered in 1998 after an outbreak in Malaysia. Since then, several outbreaks have been reported in Bangladesh and India. Although most outbreaks are relatively small, a very high case-fatality rate is reported (75%). Furthermore, human-to-human transmission has been reported. Currently, no approved vaccine or countermeasure exist.

The Emerging Pathogens groups are currently testing a ChAdOx1 based candidate vaccine for Nipah Virus in pre-clinical trials. This has shown promising protection against disease in animals including partial protection against Hendra virus, a related virus. This is an important step forwards towards the development of a vaccine for use in humans.