Professor of Vaccinology
For more than fifteen years we have been making and testing vaccines designed to induce T cell responses to the antigens we encode, initially using antigens from malaria, influenza and tuberculosis. We have had most success with heterologous prime-boost regimes using either a DNA vaccine or recombinant fowlpox or adenovirus to prime a response and recombinant MVA (Modified Vaccinia Ankara) to boost it.
Recombinant adenoviruses for clinical trials can now be produced to GMP by the University's Clinical Biomanufacturing Facility. Staff at the CBF work closely with academics to prepare batches of new vaccines for clinical trials.
Two new vaccines (MVA-NP+M1 and ChAdOx1 NP+M1) have been developed to target Influenza A. Adults already have memory T cell responses to 'flu antigens, but over time these fall below protective levels. In clinical trials, the new vaccines are able to boost these low-level responses to very high levels, either alone or in combination with the seasonal ‘flu vaccine. The enhanced T cell responses could be protective against multiple Influenza subtypes.
Recent work has focused on developing vaccines against emerging and re-emerging pathogens, including MERS, Lassa, Nipah and CCHF. A vaccine against MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) has been tested in clinical trials in the UK, and is now in trials in Saudi Arabia, where the virus is endemic.
I am a co-founder of the University’s Oxford spin in–out company Vaccitech, which is developing novel vaccines using the non-replicating viral vectors Chimpanzee Adenovirus Oxford (ChAdOx) and Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA).
Folegatti P.M. et al (2020) pre-print ahead of publication
van Doremalen et al 2020 pre-print ahead of publication
Modification of Adenovirus vaccine vector-induced immune responses by expression of a signalling molecule
Rollier CS. et al, (2020), Scientific Reports, 10
Safety and immunogenicity of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine against SARS-CoV-2: a preliminary report of a phase 1/2, single-blind, randomised controlled trial
Folegatti PM. et al, (2020), The Lancet, 396, 467 - 478
ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine prevents SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in rhesus macaques
van Doremalen N. et al, (2020), Nature
Safety and immunogenicity of a candidate Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus viral-vectored vaccine: a dose-escalation, open-label, non-randomised, uncontrolled, phase 1 trial.
Folegatti PM. et al, (2020), The Lancet. Infectious diseases, 20, 816 - 826
Heterologous Combination of ChAdOx1 and MVA Vectors Expressing Protein NS1 as Vaccination Strategy to Induce Durable and Cross-Protective CD8+ T Cell Immunity to Bluetongue Virus.
Utrilla-Trigo S. et al, (2020), Vaccines, 8