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Cell mediated immunity plays a vital role in defense against influenza infection in humans. Less is known about the role of vaccine-induced cell mediated immunity and the cytokine responses elicited. We measured CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell reactivity in human subjects following vaccination with licensed trivalent influenza vaccine and a novel virus-like particle based vaccine. We detected influenza-specific CD4+ T-cell responses following vaccination with the licensed trivalent influenza vaccine and found that these correlated with antibody measurements. Administration of the novel virus-like particle based vaccine elicited influenza-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and the induction of the cytokines IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL17F, IL-5, IL-13, IL-9, IL-10 and IL-21. Pre-existing cytokine responses influenced the profile of the cytokine response elicited by vaccination. In a subset of individuals the VLP vaccine changed pre-vaccination production of type 2 cytokines such as IL-5 and IL-13 to a post-vaccination type 1 cytokine signature characterized by IFN-γ. A transcriptional signature to vaccination was found to correlate with antibody titer, IFN-γ production by T-cells and expression of a putative RNA helicase, DDX17, on the surface of immune cells.

Original publication




Journal article


Scientific reports

Publication Date





Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos Bldg, Singapore, 138673, Singapore.


CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Humans, Influenza Vaccines, Cytokines, Vaccination, Cohort Studies, Lymphocyte Activation, Cell Proliferation, Antibody Formation, Immunity, Cellular, Adult, Middle Aged, Female, Male, Influenza, Human, Young Adult