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INTRODUCTION: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellosis (iNTS) is mainly caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis and is estimated to result in 77 500 deaths per year, disproportionately affecting children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellae serovars are increasingly acquiring resistance to first-line antibiotics, thus an effective vaccine would be a valuable tool in reducing morbidity and mortality from infection. While NTS livestock vaccines are in wide use, no licensed vaccines exist for use in humans. Here, a first-in-human study of a novel vaccine (iNTS-GMMA) containing S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis Generalised Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) outer membrane vesicles is presented. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: The Salmonella Vaccine Study in Oxford is a randomised placebo-controlled participant-observer blind phase I study of the iNTS-GMMA vaccine. Healthy adult volunteers will be randomised to receive three intramuscular injections of the iNTS-GMMA vaccine, containing equal quantities of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis GMMA particles adsorbed on Alhydrogel, or an Alhydrogel placebo at 0, 2 and 6 months. Participants will be sequentially enrolled into three groups: group 1, 1:1 randomisation to low dose iNTS-GMMA vaccine or placebo; group 2, 1:1 randomisation to full dose iNTS-GMMA vaccine or placebo; group 3, 2:1 randomisation to full dose or lower dose (dependant on DSMC reviews of groups 1 and 2) iNTS-GMMA vaccine or placebo.The primary objective is safety and tolerability of the vaccine. The secondary objective is immunogenicity as measured by O-antigen based ELISA. Further exploratory objectives will characterise the expanded human immune profile. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval for this study has been obtained from the South Central-Oxford A Research Ethics Committee (Ethics REF:22/SC/0059). Appropriate documentation and regulatory approvals have been acquired. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed articles and conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: EudraCT Number: 2020-000510-14.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ Open

Publication Date





clinical trial, immunology, public health, Adult, Child, Humans, Child, Preschool, Salmonella Vaccines, Aluminum Hydroxide, Salmonella Infections, Salmonella typhimurium, Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic