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AbstractTissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells provide key adaptive immune responses in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity. However transcriptional heterogeneity of human intestinal TRM cells remains undefined, and definitive markers of CD103-TRM cells are lacking. Here, we investigated transcriptional and functional heterogeneity of human TRM cells through the study of donor-derived intestinal TRM cells from intestinal transplant recipients. Single-cell transcriptional profiling identified four conventional TRM populations, with two distinct transcriptional states of CD8+ TRM cells, delineated by ITGAE and ITGB2 expression. We defined a transcriptional signature discriminating the two CD8+ populations, including differential expression of key residency-associated genes and cytotoxic molecules. Flow cytometry of recipient-derived cells infiltrating the graft and intestinal lymphocytes from healthy gut confirmed the two CD8+ TRM phenotypes, with β2-integrin acting as a CD103-CD8+ TRM marker. CD103+ CD8+ TRM cells produced IL-2, and demonstrated greater polyfunctional cytokine production, while β2-integrin+ CD69+ CD103-TRM cells had higher granzyme expression. Phenotypic and functional analysis of intestinal CD4+ T cells identified many parallels, including a distinct β2-integrin+ population. Together, these results describe the transcriptional, phenotypic, and functional heterogeneity of human intestinal TRM cells, and suggest a role for β2-integrin in TRM development.SummaryHeterogeneity within human tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells is poorly understood. We show that transcriptionally, phenotypically, and functionally distinct CD4+ and CD8+ TRM subsets exist in the human intestine, and that β2-integrin expression identifies a distinct population of CD8+ TRM cells.

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