Antibody-Dependent Natural Killer Cell Activation after Ebola Vaccination.
Wagstaffe HR., Clutterbuck EA., Bockstal V., Stoop JN., Luhn K., Douoguih M., Shukarev G., Snape MD., Pollard AJ., Riley EM., Goodier MR.
Antibody Fc-mediated functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, contribute to vaccine-induced protection against viral infections. Fc-mediated function of anti-Ebola glycoprotein antibodies suggest that Fc-dependent activation of effector cells, including NK cells, could play a role in vaccination against Ebola virus disease. We analysed the effect of anti-Ebola glycoprotein antibody in the serum of U.K.-based volunteers vaccinated with the novel 2-dose heterologous Adenovirus type 26.ZEBOV, Modified Vaccinia Ankara-BN-Filo vaccine regimen, on primary human NK cell activation. We demonstrate primary human NK cell CD107a and IFN-γ expression, combined with downregulation of CD16, in response to recombinant Ebola virus glycoprotein and post-vaccine dose 1 and dose 2 sera. These responses varied significantly with vaccine regimen and NK cell activation was found to correlate with anti-glycoprotein antibody concentration. We also reveal an impact of NK cell differentiation phenotype on antibody-dependent NK cell activation, with highly differentiated CD56dimCD57+ NK cells being the most responsive. This study thus highlights the dual importance of vaccine-induced antibody concentration and NK cell differentiation status in promoting Fc-mediated activation of NK cells after vaccination, raising a potential role for antibody-mediated NK cell activation in vaccine-induced immune responses.