Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

OBJECTIVES:Immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) are characterized by an abundance of circulating and tissue IgG4-positive plasma cells. T-follicular helper (Tfh) cells are necessary for B-cell differentiation into plasma cells. We aimed at elucidating the presence and phenotype of Tfh cells and their relationship with disease activity in IgG4-SC/AIP. METHODS:Circulating Tfh-cell subsets were characterized by multiparametric flow cytometry in IgG4-SC/AIP (n = 18), disease controls with primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 8), and healthy controls (HCs, n = 9). Tissue Tfh cells were characterized in IgG4-SC/AIP (n = 12) and disease control (n = 10) specimens. Activated PD1+ Tfh cells were cocultured with CD27+ memory B cells to assess their capacity to support B-cell differentiation. Disease activity was assessed using the IgG4-responder index and clinical parameters. RESULTS:Activated circulating PD-1+CXCR5+ Tfh cells were expanded in active vs inactive IgG4-SC/AIP, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and HC (P < 0.01), with enhanced PD-1 expression on all Tfh-cell subsets (Tfh1, P = 0.003; Tfh2, P = 0.0006; Th17, P = 0.003). Expansion of CD27+CD38+CD19lo plasmablasts in active disease vs HC (P = 0.01) correlated with the PD-1+ Tfh2 subset (r = 0.69, P = 0.03). Increased IL-4 and IL-21 cytokine production from stimulated cells of IgG4-SC/AIP, important in IgG4 class switch and proliferation, correlated with PD-1+ Tfh2 (r = 0.89, P = 0.02) and PD-1+ Tfh17 (r = 0.83, P = 0.03) subsets. Coculture of PD1+ Tfh with CD27+ B cells induced higher IgG4 expression than with PD1- Tfh (P = 0.008). PD-1+ Tfh2 cells were strongly associated with clinical markers of disease activity: sIgG4 (r = 0.70, P = 0.002), sIgE (r = 0.66, P = 0.006), and IgG4-responder index (r = 0.60, P = 0.006). Activated CXCR5+ Tfh cells homed to lymphoid follicles in IgG4-SC/AIP tissues. CONCLUSIONS:Circulating and tissue-activated Tfh cells are expanded in IgG4-SC/AIP, correlate with disease activity, and can drive class switch and proliferation of IgG4-committed B cells. PD1+ Tfh2 cells may be a biomarker of active disease and a potential target for immunotherapy.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

Original publication




Journal article


Clinical and translational gastroenterology

Publication Date



Peter Medawar Building for Pathogen Research and Oxford NIHR BRC, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, UK.