Protocol for the challenge non-typhoidal Salmonella (CHANTS) study: a first-in-human, in-patient, double-blind, randomised, safety and dose-escalation controlled human infection model in the UK.
Smith C., Smith E., Rydlova A., Varro R., Hinton JCD., Gordon MA., Choy RKM., Liu X., Pollard AJ., Chiu C., Cooke GS., Gibani MM.
INTRODUCTION: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) serovars are a major cause of community-acquired bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In this setting, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium accounts for two-thirds of infections and is associated with an estimated case fatality rate of 15%-20%. Several iNTS vaccine candidates are in early-stage assessment which-if found effective-would provide a valuable public health tool to reduce iNTS disease burden. The CHANTS study aims to develop a first-in-human Salmonella Typhimurium controlled human infection model, which can act as a platform for future vaccine evaluation, in addition to providing novel insights into iNTS disease pathogenesis. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This double-blind, safety and dose-escalation study will randomise 40-80 healthy UK participants aged 18-50 to receive oral challenge with one of two strains of S. Typhimurium belonging to the ST19 (strain 4/74) or ST313 (strain D23580) lineages. 4/74 is a global strain often associated with diarrhoeal illness predominantly in high-income settings, while D23580 is an archetypal strain representing invasive disease-causing isolates found in SSA. The primary objective is to determine the minimum infectious dose (colony-forming unit) required for 60%-75% of participants to develop clinical or microbiological features of systemic salmonellosis. Secondary endpoints are to describe and compare the clinical, microbiological and immunological responses following challenge. Dose escalation or de-escalation will be undertaken by continual-reassessment methodology and limited within prespecified safety thresholds. Exploratory objectives are to describe mechanisms of iNTS virulence, identify putative immune correlates of protection and describe host-pathogen interactions in response to infection. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been obtained from the NHS Health Research Authority (London-Fulham Research Ethics Committee 21/PR/0051; IRAS Project ID 301659). The study findings will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and presented at national/international stakeholder meetings. Study outcome summaries will be provided to both funders and participants. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05870150.