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Low- and middle-income countries face a high burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fever due to poor water quality and inadequate sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCV) in endemic settings and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, supports TCV introduction. There are currently 2 WHO-prequalified TCVs with Typbar TCV introduced in Pakistan, Liberia, and Zimbabwe. Countries should assess disease burden and consider introduction of TCV for programmatic use. Several paratyphoid vaccine candidates are in early stages of development. An effective bivalent vaccine would be the most efficient way to control typhoid and paratyphoid fever.

Original publication

DOI

10.1093/infdis/jiab393

Type

Journal article

Journal

The Journal of infectious diseases

Publication Date

12/2021

Volume

224

Pages

S770 - S774

Addresses

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit-Nepal, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Keywords

Humans, Salmonella typhi, Paratyphoid Fever, Typhoid Fever, Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines, Vaccines, Conjugate, Endemic Diseases, World Health Organization