The Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 paralog (PvMSP1P), which has epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains, was identified as a novel erythrocyte adhesive molecule. This EGF-like domain (PvMSP1P-19) elicited high level of acquired immune response in patients. Antibodies against PvMSP1P significantly reduced erythrocyte adhesion activity to its unknown receptor. To determine PvMSP1P-19-specific antibody function and B-cell epitopes in vivax patients, five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and 18-mer peptides were generated. The mAb functions were determined by erythrocyte-binding inhibition assay and invasion inhibition assay with P. knowlesi. B-cell epitopes of PvMSP1P-19 domains were evaluated by peptide microarray. The pvmsp1p-19 sequences showed limited polymorphism in P. vivax worldwide isolates. The 1BH9-A10 showed erythrocyte binding inhibitory by interaction with the N-terminus of PvMSP1P-19, while this mAb failed to recognize PkMSP1P-19 suggesting the species-specific for P. vivax. Other mAbs showed cross-reactivity with PkMSP1P-19. Among them, the 2AF4-A2 and 2AF4-A6 mAb significantly reduced parasite invasion through C-terminal recognition. The linear B-cell epitope in naturally exposed P. vivax patient was identified at three linear epitopes. In this study, PvMSP1P-19 N-terminal-specific 1BH9-A10 and C-terminal-specific 2AF4 mAbs showed functional activity for epitope recognition suggesting that PvMSP1P may be useful for vaccine development strategy for specific single epitope to prevent P. vivax invasion.
Department of Medical Environmental Biology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea.