51 years in of Chikungunya clinical vaccine development: A historical perspective.
Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) is a mosquito-borne disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). This virus is considered a priority pathogen to the UK government, the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the US military personnel, due to the potential of CHIKV to cause major outbreaks. Nearly all CHIKV infections are symptomatic, often incapacitating and patients experience severe joint pain and inflammation that can last for more than one year with 0.4-0.5% fatality rates. Mother-to-child transmission has also been described. Despite this re-emerging disease has been documented in more than 100 countries in Europe, Oceania, Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, South and North America, no licensed vaccine is yet available to prevent CHIKF. Nevertheless, various developments have entered phase I and II trials and are now viable options to fight this incapacitating disease. This review focuses on the development of CHIKV vaccines that have reached the stage of clinical trials since the late 1960s up until 2018.