Other Seminars

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Wed 1 Aug 2018 from 11:00 to 12:30

Ethox Centre and Wellcome Centre for Ethics and Humanities

Big Data Institute, Seminar room 0, Old Road Campus OX3 7LF

All About Money: Why We Should Ignore “Undue Influence” in Research

Ethan Cowan

In 1979 the Belmont Report warned about threat of “undue influence” on the ability of potential research participants to provide voluntary informed consent. The authors defined undue influence as, “an offer of an excessive, unwarranted, inappropriate or improper reward or other overture in... Read more

In 1979 the Belmont Report warned about threat of “undue influence” on the ability of potential research participants to provide voluntary informed consent. The authors defined undue influence as, “an offer of an excessive, unwarranted, inappropriate or improper reward or other overture in order to obtain compliance.” The attention levied on undue influence has had profound and lasting effects on the way that individuals are recruited and compensated for their participation in research. In this paper I will describe the theoretical foundations of undue influence and argue that the concept is fundamentally flawed. Furthermore, I will provide a defense of why ethics review committees (ERCs) and institutional review boards (IRBs) should not consider undue influence in their assessment of research proposals. Lastly, I will argue that a focus on undue influence by ERCs and IRBs raises the real prospect of exploitation and discrimination of potentially vulnerable groups.

Audience: Public

Organisers: Christa Henrichs

Tue 7 Aug 2018 from 13:00 to 14:00

Jenner Seminars

Old Road Campus Research Building, Seminar Room, Lower Ground Floor, Headington OX3 7DQ

Rapid Response Pipeline for Stabilized Subunit Vaccines

Dr Keith Chappell

Audience: Member of the University of Oxford and The Pirbright Institute

Organisers: Lisbeth Soederberg

Wed 8 Aug 2018 from 11:00 to 12:30

Ethox Centre and Wellcome Centre for Ethics and Humanities

Big Data Institute, Seminar Room 0, Old Road Campus OX3 7LF

African Bioethics: what and how?

Dr Caesar Atuire

Audience: Members of the University only

Organisers: Christa Henrichs

Wed 15 Aug 2018 from 11:00 to 12:30

Ethox Centre and Wellcome Centre for Ethics and Humanities

Big Data Institute, Meeting room L1 Ax, Old Road Campus OX3 7LF

Ethical Expertise in Psychiatry in Germany

Dr Joschka Haltaufderheide

Clinical ethics support services (CESS) are valuable tools in psychiatric practice. They have often been advocated as being useful by professionals in this field. More than 90% of German psychiatric hospitals have already implemented ethical support structures. However, despite this high... Read more

Clinical ethics support services (CESS) are valuable tools in psychiatric practice. They have often been advocated as being useful by professionals in this field. More than 90% of German psychiatric hospitals have already implemented ethical support structures. However, despite this high implementation rate, the number of cases dealt with in these services is considerably low. Recent data suggests a mismatch between what is supplied and what is demanded. To develop their supportive capacities, structures and concepts of CESS must be reconsidered to fit psychiatry’s needs more accurately. In this talk, the theoretical foundations of CESS are explored in regard to this challenge. One of their core elements is the claim of ethical expertise, that is, to be able to identify, analyze or solve ethical issues more accurate or better than others. Unfortunately, concepts of expertise within the context of CESS are manifold and often vague. In theoretic literature consistency - and even existence - of ethical expertise is often disputed. Claiming authority, it is said, is opposed by the idea of ethics itself. Others try to define expertise as kind of practical skill rather than authority over a certain branch of knowledge. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that this discussion might be misleading. At least in psychiatry, the idea of authority is rejected by clinicians in practice. On the contrary, experts are appreciated for their non-directive behavior or their ability to provide normative insights and mutual understanding. It is recommended that experts should possess attributes like tolerance, prudence and integrity. Accordingly, the signifying property of expertise may not be its authority but rather its trustworthiness. Following this argument, trust-based concepts of expertise, their extent and their applicability in psychiatry are explored.

Booking Required

Audience: Public

Organisers: Christa Henrichs

Thu 16 Aug 2018 from 11:00 to 12:00

Ludwig Institute Seminar Series

NDM Building, Basement seminar room, TDI, Headington OX3 7FZ

The role of Keratins in modulating carcinogenesis via communication with cells of the immune system

Ines Sequeira

The inability to resolve chronic inflammation is considered one of the initial triggers of carcinogenesis. Until recently, keratins were mainly regarded as cytoskeletal scaffolds; however, there is an emerging role for keratins in the regulation of epidermal immunity. Keratin 76 (Krt76) is... Read more

The inability to resolve chronic inflammation is considered one of the initial triggers of carcinogenesis. Until recently, keratins were mainly regarded as cytoskeletal scaffolds; however, there is an emerging role for keratins in the regulation of epidermal immunity. Keratin 76 (Krt76) is expressed in the differentiated epithelial layers of skin, oral cavity and squamous stomach. Krt76 downregulation in human oral squamous cell carcinomas correlates with poor prognosis. We show that genetic ablation of Krt76 in mice leads to spleen and lymph node enlargement, an increase in regulatory T cells (Tregs) and high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Krt76-/- Tregs have increased suppressive ability correlated with increased CD39 and CD73 expression. The Krt76-/- mouse serves as a model to explore the link between chronic inflammation and cancer, providing an opportunity to examine the impact of aberrant epithelial differentiation and consequent chronic inflammation on tumorigenesis. We observed that loss of Krt76 increases carcinogen-induced tumours in tongue and squamous stomach. The carcinogenesis response includes upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced accumulation of Tregs in the tumour microenvironment. This study highlights the importance of keratins as immunomodulators and demonstrates their importance in tumour progression.

Audience: Members of the University only

Organisers: Christina Woodward

Tue 28 Aug 2018 from 10:30 to 11:30

Population Health Seminars

Richard Doll Building, Lecture Theatre, Old Road Campus OX3 7LF

NPEU Seminar: TBC (Maternal and Newborn health in the community – Uganda/UK collaboration)

Dr Christine Nalwadda Kayemba

Audience: Members of the University only

Organisers: Graham Bagley

Thu 30 Aug 2018 from 16:30 to 18:30

Experimental Medicine TGU Seminars

John Radcliffe Hospital - Main Building, George Pickering Education Centre, Department of Medical Education, Level 3, Room 2B, Headington OX3 9DU

Gastrointestinal stem cells as targets, sensors and effectors of bacterial infections

Dr. Michael Sigal

Audience: Members of the University only

Organisers: Dr Holm Uhlig